文章摘要
吕 萍,吕 华.6~7岁儿童对光影概念认知现状分析与教学建议[J].陕西学前师范学院学报,2020,36(2):60-65
6~7岁儿童对光影概念认知现状分析与教学建议
Current Situation Analysis and Teaching Suggestions of 6 to 7 -year-oldChildren’s Light and Shadow Conceptual Cognition
投稿时间:2019-09-16  修订日期:2019-11-26
DOI:10. 11995 / j. issn. 2095-770X. 2020. 02. 009
中文关键词: 儿童;光影;概念认知
英文关键词: children; light and shadow; conceptual cognition
基金项目:
作者单位
吕 萍 上海市浦东教育发展研究院,上海 200127 
吕 华 内蒙古兴安盟扎赉特旗音德尔第一中学,内蒙古 137600 
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中文摘要:
      采用结构性访谈和画图,针对影子的来源、方向、位置和形状,选取6~7岁儿童进行访谈和情景问答。结果发现:(1)儿童对抽象程度比较低的概念,如“许多物体在光下都有影子”“不同的物体有不同的影子”,能够达到科学概念水平;(2)不能把日常生活中常见的现象抽象到科学概念水平,如“光(太阳)和物体的影子分别在物体的两侧”“影子的形状与物体一致”,尚处在准科学概念水平;(3)对抽象程度比较高的概念,如“影子是由于光被物体挡住而产生的”“光源、物体和影子呈直线关系”,尚处在日常概念水平;(4)对“光源、物体和影子的方向和位置”,还存在一些错误概念。教师在教学过程中,要善于利用大量的形象感知、动手操作、认知冲突、直接告知等教学策略,促进儿童光影概念的形成与发展。
英文摘要:
      Using structural interviews and drawings, the researchers selected children aged 6 to 7 to conduct interviews and ask situational questions about the source, direction, location and shape of the shadow. The results found:(1) children’s concepts which have a relatively low degree of abstraction, such as "many objects have shadows under light" and "different objects have different shadows", can reach the scientific level; (2) it is not yet possible for children at that age to abstract the common phenomena in daily life to the level of scientific concepts, such as "the light(sun) and the shadow of the object are on both sides of the object" and "the shape of the shadow is consistent with the object". The concepts are still at a quasi-scientific level; (3) the concept of a relatively high degree of abstraction, such as "the shadow is caused by the light being blocked by the object" and "the light source, object, and shadow are in a linear relationship", is still at the level of daily concepts; (4) there are still some erroneous concepts about the "direction and position of light sources, objects, and shadows." In the teaching process, teachers should be good at using a large number of image perception, hands-on operation, cognitive conflict, direct instruction and other teaching strategies to promote the formation and development of children's light and shadow concept.
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